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Preparing your business for EU Exit - Importing & Exporting

The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020 and is in the transition period until 31 December 2020. This guide provides advice on importing and exporting.

Last Updated: Monday 14 September 2020

Section 3 - Crossing Borders

3.01 What can I do to avoid delays at the border for my imports/exports?

Missing or inaccurate paperwork is one of the most common causes of delay at the border. It is important to liaise with your overseas counterpart so the exporter understands what paperwork is required. Ensuring that documentation is legible, complete, thorough and correct can help to mitigate the risk of hold ups during border checks. The timely arrival of documentation contributes to a timely clearance, for example arranging for your documentation to arrive prior to the goods.

Use of a reputable customs broker with a good relationship with the customs authorities in the importing country can also help to ensure your goods are cleared efficiently.

Authorised Economic Operator (AEO) status gives quicker access to some simplified customs procedures and, in some cases, the right to ‘fast-track’ your shipments through some customs and safety and security procedures. Application preparation and submission for AEO status typically takes 3 to 12 months, followed by 120 days for customs to assess your submission, and conduct site visits. If you are interested in achieving AEO status, you are advised to read the relevant guidance published by HMRC here.

If you import from the EU you can also make use of the Customs Freight Simplified Procedures (CFSP). These will allow deferments on the submission of customs declarations, the payment of customs duty and other requirements as announced by the UK government on 12 June 2020. 

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.02 Will there continue to be mutual recognition of UK products across the EU?

When the UK leaves the transition period it will no longer fall within the scope of the mutual recognition principle. This allows product that is legally sold in one member state to be sold in any other member state even if the product standards are not harmonised. Harmonised products meet the legal requirements in both countries and can continue to be marketed in each country.

UK businesses exporting non-harmonised goods to the EU market will need to consider the national requirements of the first EU country they export to. They will not need to consider the national requirements of any EU countries goods travel through before reaching the EU country in which they are intended to be placed on the market.

UK businesses who have already exported a non-harmonised good to an EU country by meeting the relevant national requirements will not need to take any specific action. The mutual recognition principle will allow the product to be further marketed throughout the EU Single Market.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.03 Will there continue to be mutual recognition of EU goods sold on the UK market?

No, UK and non-UK businesses who import non-harmonised goods into the UK will need to take action.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.04 When we export seafood products, we will be exporting as the ‘UK’ and not as the ‘EU’. What impact will this have?

Export health certificates (EHCs) issued by the UK provide guarantees of compliance with the health requirements of the importing country. In future, the authorities of certain countries importing seafood from the UK may choose to carry out an inspection of the UK authorities and/or exporting businesses to ensure that their requirements are continuing to be met after the end of the transition period. Depending on the severity and nature of any non-compliance found, it is unlikely that any inspection would lead to a suspension in trade.

There is currently no indication that countries wish to carry out inward inspections in the short term. However it is key for exporters to continue to meet the requirements of the destination country and ensure EU requirements as a minimum continue to be met. See section 2 for the impact on product labelling and origin claims.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.05 Will current trade arrangements with EEA countries apply at the end of the transition period?

Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland trade with the EU under an agreement.UK trade with these countries will be treated as trade with EU member states in accordance with such agreements during the transition period.

The UK Government has concluded trade agreements with the Faroes, Liechtenstein and Switzerland as well as some other non-EU countries. This will allow trade with these countries to continue with minimal changes after the transition period ends. Trade agreements with Iceland and Norway have been agreed in part. These agreements cannot be concluded until the exact nature of the UK–EU relationship is known, because the UK’s relationship with these countries is influenced by the UK’s relationship with the EU. You can find the latest on signed trade agreements here.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.06 What will happen to UK goods that are on the market in the EU if the UK leaves the EU with no deal?

Food products placed on the EU Single Market before the close of the transition period can continue to be sold, distributed or transferred in the EU Single Market without the need for labelling changes.

The definition of 'food products placed on the EU Single Market' is food that has been:

  • Held in the EU Single Market for the purpose of sale, including offering for sale or any other form of transfer, whether free of charge or not; or
  • Sold, distributed, or transferred by other forms to the EU Single Market.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.07 Do I need an EORI number?

In order to trade with the EU at the end of the transition period you may need two types of Economic Operators Registration and Identification (EORI) number.

UK EORI

A UK EORI number will allow you to trade goods into or out of the UK. It will allow you or your agent to submit the necessary customs declarations and to apply for customs simplification procedures. Your UK EORI number will start with ‘GB’ and be followed by 12 digits which will include your VAT number. You may already have a UK EORI number if you trade with non-EU countries.

A UK EORI number is not required if you only move goods between Ireland and Northern Ireland.

If you are a VAT registered UK business, HMRC may have automatically allocated you a UK EORI number. If you are not a VAT registered business or have not received your UK EORI number click here to contact HMRC or to apply.

UK businesses should refer to government guidance on UK EORI numbers for the latest information.

EU EORI

A UK business will need an EU EORI number only if it is dealing directly with EU customs authorities. If your importer or customer in the EU deals with the EU customs authorities on your behalf, they will need to have an EU EORI number.

EU EORI numbers must be applied for in the customs authority in the EU where you first conduct trade or request a customs decision from. Details on EU Member State customs authorities can be found here.

An EU EORI number is not required if you only move goods between Ireland and Northern Ireland.

UK businesses should refer to EU guidance on EU EORI numbers for more information.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.08 Should I use a Customs Broker/Agent or Freight Forwarder to help with customs procedures?

Most businesses use a customs broker/agent or freight forwarder to make customs declarations for them. This can make exporting simpler and faster and can reduce the risk of delays at the border.

It is possible to make your own customs declarations if you have the appropriate qualification and use approved software. Given the complexity of the process, this approach is generally better suited to the more experienced exporter but can be more cost effective than using an agent. Grant funding has been made available to help UK businesses complete customs declarations themselves, in preparation for the end of the transition period.

The UK Government has established a new free-to-use Trader Support Service which can be used to complete customs declarations on your behalf, when moving goods into Northern Ireland from GB or non-EU countries. It can help if you:

  • Move goods from Great Britain to Northern Ireland, or bring goods into Northern Ireland from outside the UK
  • Act on behalf of someone to move goods from Great Britain to Northern Ireland, or bring goods into Northern Ireland from outside the UK
  • Are based in Northern Ireland and receive goods from outside of Northern Ireland
  • Send parcels from Great Britain to Northern Ireland, or bring parcels into Northern Ireland from outside the UK, using Royal Mail or an express operator

To register your interest in the service or for further information, please refer to this HMRC guidance.More information on third parties that can help with the customs process and the movement of the goods can be found on the British International Freight Association website here.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

3.09 Will my wooden packaging (e.g. pallets) need to meet any new requirements?

Yes. Wood packaging material (WPM) moving between the UK and the rest of the EU can currently move freely without checks or controls. From 1 January 2021 all WPM moving between the Great Britain and the EU (including Northern Ireland) must meet ISPM15 international standards and may be subject to official checks either upon or after entry to the EU or Northern Ireland.

ISPM15 international standards apply to solid wood packaging such as packing cases, boxes and crates, drums and similar packing, pallets, box pallets and pallet collars and dunnage (loose wood used to protect goods and their packaging).

These standards do not apply to processed woods like plywood, raw wood less than 6mm thick, or cardboard or other packaging materials.

You can check whether a pallet has been treated to ISPM15 standard if it bears 2 ISPM15 marks on opposite sides of the pallet. These marks must be visible and legible and can appear on the block, stringer or lead board of the pallet. A pallet simply having an ISPM15 stamp on may not mean it is compliant as it might not be fully legible.

Importing solid wood packaging

Checks on WPM will continue to be carried out in the UK on a risk-targeted basis only. The plant health risk from WPM imported from the EU and Northern Ireland is low and is not expected to change from 1 January 2021.

You should specify the requirements for solid wood packaging in your contract with the exporter. This will help protect you if the packaging fails an inspection.

If the packaging fails an inspection and you’re given the option to treat it, you can either:

  • find a company authorised to carry out treatment to ISPM15 standards
  • send the wood packaging back to the supplier

Exporting solid wood packaging

You, or your packing service or freight forwarder, must make sure any solid wood packaging you use meets ISPM15 international standards.

All wood packaging material and dunnage which is exported to the EU from a non-EU country must be:

  • either heat treated or fumigated in line with ISPM15 procedures
  • officially marked with the ISPM15 stamp consisting of 3 codes (country, producer and measure applied) and the IPPC logo
  • debarked

If you export packaging outside the EU, check if the country you’re trading with accepts ISPM15 standards and if they have any other requirements.

You can either:

For more information see UK Government guidance ‘movement of wood packaging material’ and EU guidance ‘requirements for wood packaging and dunnage’.

There are special rules for Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

Section 4 - Importing into Great Britain

4.01 What new import controls will be in place at the UK border? What health and catch documentation will I need?

There will be minimal change in the short term to current veterinary controls and requirements for notifications for seafood, including live seafood, imported directly from third countries outside the EU. The only difference will be that importers or their agents would have to use a new import notification system, called the Import of Products, Animals, Food and Feed System (IPAFFS), which will replace TRACES.

The requirement for health certification and catch certification will remain unchanged.

With direct imports of seafood from EU countries, the UK intends to leave current procedures for importing seafood unchanged in the short term, other than the requirement for a catch certificate. A health certificate will be required from April 2021. After the end of the transition period, if you are importing goods from the EU, there will be no requirement for notification via IPAFFS until April 2021. From July 2021, there will be import checks at Border Control Posts (BCPs) on seafood from the EU. Consignments from the EU will have to be imported via a point of entry with an appropriate BCP.

You will require a catch certificate and supporting documents, validated by the country of export, for most consignments of wild-caught seafood imported from the EU or elsewhere and for fish and fishery products landed directly into the UK by a non-UK flagged vessel. If the fish you’re importing into the UK has been caught by a vessel flagged to a country other than the exporting country, you will need the following documentation:

  • If it has been stored for more than 12 hours, you’ll need a copy of the catch certificate and a storage document from the exporter;
  • If it has been processed, you’ll need a copy of the catch certificate and a processing statement from the exporter – this must be filled in by the processor and endorsed by the authority in the country of processing.

To ensure efficient clearance of your consignment, you should provide the original catch certificate to the port of entry in advance or at the time of your consignment’s arrival. If this is not possible, you should check with your port of entry. Some ports may agree to complete the checks if you provide them with electronic catch certificate documents, provided that hard copies of the documents follow.

If your product is listed in Annex I of the IUU Regulation (Regulation 1005/2008), as amended, it is exempt from the catch certificate requirement. You should ensure that the accompanying commercial documents contain information to support your claim that no catch certificate is required, such as documentary evidence that the product is of aquaculture origin.

Non-UK vessels, including EU vessels, intending to land their catch in the UK will need to follow the same rules that will apply to UK-registered vessels accessing an EU port. For example, they’ll need to give notice of their plans to land, except in cases of distress and unexpected events (force majeure). Fish must be landed in a designated UK port. EU vessels fishing in the NEAFC Convention Area and landing into the UK will need to complete a Port State Control form.

There will be new import requirements for imports of seafood from non-EU countries that arrive in the UK via an EU country.  They are described below in question 4.06. The requirements will apply at the end of the transition period.

Last Updated: 14 September 2020

4.02 Will my consignment be checked? Who pays for the border checks?

Checks on seafood imported directly from non-EU countries, and payment for the checks, will remain as they are currently. While there is no intention to change the frequency or nature of the checks, this may be revised in the future on the basis of the UK-specific risk.

Seafood from EU countries will have to be accompanied by a catch certificate from 1 January 2021. Other requirements and checks will be staged as follows.

From 1 January 2021 to 31 March 2021, seafood from EU countries will not be subject to veterinary checks and will not have to be imported via a Border Control Post (BCP).

From 1 April 2021 to 30 June 2021, seafood from EU countries will require pre-notification and health certification. The import will not have to take place via a Border Control Post (BCP). Documentary checks will take place remotely.

From 1 July 2021, seafood from EU countries will require pre-notification and health certification, and will have to be imported through an appropriate BCP. Port health inspectors will carry out documentary and identity checks on all consignments, and will carry out physical checks at a frequency determined by the level of risk.

The Port Health Authority at the point of entry will charge the importer (or the ‘person responsible for the consignment’) for the checks.

Last Updated: 14 September 2020

4.03 What markings should I have on the consignment?

There will be no change to the requirement for labelling of the consignment presented for import. The consignment will need a legible and indelible identification mark (‘health mark’) that is clearly displayed. The mark must indicate the establishment number of the establishment and the country of origin. Inspectors should be able to see the mark without having to open the package.

For changes to labelling of packaged seafood intended for the UK market, see Section 2 of this guide.

Last Updated: 14 September 2020

4.04 How will I be able to check the Customs tariff for my import?

HMRC publishes tariff data online, which importers will be able to continue to use to check tariffs on imported goods.

After the end of transition, there will be a number of changes to tariffs. The trade tariffs that will apply from 1 January 2021 can be checked on the UK Global Tariff website.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

4.05 How will Customs requirements change?

If you have been importing from non-EU countries, you will already have arrangements in place with HMRC and these will remain unchanged. 

If you want to import from an EU country, you will have to apply the same customs rules to goods moving between the EU and the UK as currently apply in cases where goods move between a country outside of the EU and the UK. There is guidance on this in the UK government’s Border Operating Model document.

Actions to take in preparation for the future

  • Register for a GB Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI) number. Get an UK EORI number
  • Decide if you want to make customs declarations yourselfor appoint a Customs Intermediary. If you decide not to use an intermediary, you will need to make declarations yourself. To do this you will need to get access to HMRC systems and to purchase software. You could be entitled to financial help to help your business complete customs declarations.
  • Apply for a Duty Deferment Account. Traders who import goods regularly may benefit from having a duty deferment account (DDA). This enables customs charges including customs duty, excise duty, and import VAT to be paid once a month through Direct Debit instead of being paid on individual consignments.
  • Prepare to pay or account for VAT on imported goods. VAT registered traders will be able to account for import VAT on their VAT return by using postponed VAT accounting from 1 January 2021. Unless they are eligible to defer their supplementary declarations, they will not be compelled to use postponed VAT accounting.
  • Ensure drivers have correct International Driving Permits. Hauliers need to ensure their drivers have the correct documentation, for example an international driving permit (IDP) or an additional licence may be required to drive in some countries. More information will be provided on GOV.UK as the requirements are clarified.
  • Additional actions for Customs and VAT processes:
      • Check suitability for facilitations Section 1.1.5 and Section 4.1.5. of the Border Operation Model document that will make processes smoother.
      • Find the right commodity code for your goods.
      • Businesses importing goods into GB should ensure they are familiar with using the ‘Trade with the UK’ tool which provides detailed information on tariffs, taxes and rules. The tariffs shown are those currently being applied until 1 January 2021. Use the UK Global Tariff tool to check the tariffs that will apply to goods imported from 1 January 2021.
  • Check whether any duty relief schemes apply- these let you pay less (or no) duty on imports.
  • Consider commercial arrangements (Incoterms). Individual commercial contracts and arrangements may alter the default legal responsibilities and requirements. Contractual obligations for international commercial transactions are outlined in the Incoterms rules, which are administered by the International Chamber of Commerce. These are an important consideration for traders when moving goods internationally, and should be considered and understood alongside the information in this document.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

4.06 I import seafood from a non-EU country via the EU. What will change?

If there is no future agreement negotiated with the EU beyond the Withdrawal Agreement, there will be new requirements for imports of seafood from non-EU countries that move through the EU before arriving in the UK.

These requirements will apply from the end of the transition period (1st January 2021). However, some aspects will not take effect until April 2021 or July 2021. Importers will need to notify the UK authorities using the new import notification system (the Import of Products, Animals, Food and Feed System, IPAFFS), which will replace TRACES. The seafood will have to be imported through a Border Control Post (BCP) to ensure that the necessary checks are carried out. 

Seafood that is cleared for free circulation in the EU (and Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and subsequently imported into the UK will be treated as an import from the EU.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

4.07 Will I be able to take advantage of the EU’s existing Free Trade Agreements for my imports after 1 January 2021?

No, the UK will no longer be a party to these agreements after 1 January 2021. The UK has been making arrangements with these countries to ensure that trade continues under similar conditions after the end of the transition period.

UK businesses should refer to government guidance on ‘Existing trade agreements with non-EU countries’ for the latest developments.

Some agreements will not be in place before the end of the transition period. In this case, trade with these countries would take place on World Trade Organization (WTO) terms using ‘Most Favoured Nation’ (MFN) tariffs.

Last Updated: 14 September 2020

4.08 I import live aquatic animals (e.g. Mussels and Oysters) from the EU for aquaculture purposes. Will my processes change?

There will be new processes that importers must follow for live fish, molluscs and crustaceans imported for aquaculture and ornamental purposes including live shellfish for purification (depuration) prior to consumption.

England and Wales

From 1 January 2021

Live aquatic animals from the EU must be:

 

From 1 July 2021

New import requirements will apply to live aquatic animals imported from the EU.

They must be:

  • Accompanied by an Export Animal Health Certificate so they can have documentary checks. UK model animal health certificates are under review and will be made available through the FHI on completion.
  • Pre-notified by the importer using IPAFFS
  • Entered through a Border Control Post (BCP) so they’re available for documentary, identity and physical checks. A full list of UK BCPs can be found here.

Read UK Government guidance for more information on importing live aquatic animals at the end of the transition period.

Scotland 

The Fish Health Inspectorate in Marine Scotland must be notified of all planned imports using the relevant notification forms.

For specific queries please contact the Fish Health Inspectorate (Scotland) team.

This guidance does not currently apply to UK businesses moving goods into, out of, or through Northern Ireland.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

4.09 I import live aquatic animals (e.g. Mussels and Oysters) from a non-EU country for aquaculture purposes. Will my processes change?

From 1 January 2021, you will no longer have access to the EU’s import system TRACES (Trade Control and Expert System). Instead, you will need to use the UK’s new Import of Products, Animals, Food and Feed System (IPAFFS). You must use IPAFFS to notify the UK BCP at least one working day before your consignment is due to arrive.

Export Animal Health Certificates are required. Health certificates and other documentation are being reviewed and further guidance will follow. Contact FHI for the required document.

You must continue to import live animals into the UK through a UK border control post (BCP) formerly known as Border Inspection Posts (BIPs).

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

Section 5 - Exporting from the UK to non-EU countries

5.01 What UK legislation covers seafood exports?

Legislation governing seafood exports is largely set out by the importing country. It is the responsibility of the exporter to identify what the importing country's requirements are, to take the necessary measures to meet them and to carry out any confirmatory checks. 

The UK places no particular controls on seafood exports other than those relevant to all food businesses, i.e. those related to compliance with food law. In the domestic context, these food laws include the UK’s Food Safety Act 1990 (as amended) which covers operations involved in the export of food. It requires food businesses to ensure that they do not render food injurious to health, sell food not of the nature or substance or quality demanded to the purchaser’s prejudice nor falsely describe or present food.

The European Union (Withdrawal) Act converts “direct EU legislation” which is “operative” immediately before exit day, into domestic law. As a result, the following EU food laws will remain applicable to UK food exports:

General Food Law

Article 12 of the General Food Law Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 requires that food exported or re-exported for placing on the market abroad needs to comply with relevant food law. 

Hygiene Regulations

Article 11 of Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 requires food for export to comply with the following hygiene requirements, in particular:

  • The specific requirements inRegulation (EC) No 853/2004
  • Microbiological criteria
  • Hygiene procedures
  • Temperature control and maintenance of the cold chain
  • Sampling and analysis
  • The requirement to have in place a permanent documented procedure based on HACCP principles

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

5.02 How do I find out the seafood safety requirements in my destination market?

Each importing country has its own legislation governing seafood imports. UK exporters should check with the authorities in the destination country for the requirements they need to comply with. Importers in the destination market are usually very knowledgeable of the import specifications in their country.

If you do not have a contact in the importing country, you should contact the Department for International Trade’s Food & Drink Exports Team.

The team can provide advice on the standards and regulations that your product should seek to comply with and can also assist with introductions in new markets.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

5.03 The importer at the country of destination of my exports pays no duty or reduced duty on my goods. Is this likely to change on 1 January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place between the UK and the EU?

After 31 December 2020, EU trade agreements will not apply to the UK.

The Northern Ireland Protocol ensures that Northern Ireland will benefit from trade deals negotiated and delivered on behalf of the United Kingdom.

If the UK agrees a Free Trade Agreement with your country of destination by 31 December 2020:

The UK is seeking to reproduce the effects of existing EU agreements for when they no longer apply to the UK. This will ensure continuity of trading arrangements for UK businesses. A list of agreements expected to take effect from 1 January 2021 can be found here. The agreements may contain minor changes to the original agreement, particularly in the area of rules of origin and may contain minor changes to duty rates

The rules of origin in transitioned agreements will enable businesses in the UK and the trading partner to continue to operate as much as possible through their established value and supply chains, including continuing to make use of EU content in their exports to one another. The proof of origin required under transitioned agreements is as similar as possible to those used in the previous EU agreement. Different trade deals permit different types of proof to be submitted to demonstrate the origin of goods. This may include a certificate of origin in a particular format or a declaration on an invoice.

Updated certificates of origin will be available from your usual provider. The certificates will look very similar to those currently in use, but will show the UK as the place of origin rather than the EU.

The UK is also negotiating new trade agreements that were not possible during EU membership. Details can be found on DIT website.

If the UK has NOT agreed a Free Trade Agreement with your country of destination, by 31 December 2020:

If the UK does not reproduce the effects of an existing EU agreement, trade with other World Trade Organization (WTO) members will take place on WTO terms when EU trade agreements cease to apply to the UK. This may result in changes to duty rates.

Countries that are currently applying full (MFN) tariffs on imported seafood from the EU will continue to do so on goods originating from the UK.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

5.04 I already export to non-EU countries. Will my export procedures change?

In the immediate instance, requirements for trade to third countries outside the EU will not change at the end of the transition period. However changes may be required to the wording of the documentation, which would need to be agreed with the destination country, to reflect the fact the UK is no longer a member of the EU. Defra is working to agree updates for all existing export health certificates, prioritising the countries to which the UK exports the highest volumes. Exporters to non-EU third countries would need to check, before export, the latest version of the Export Health Certificate for that particular destination.

See question ‘The importer at the country of destination of my exports pays no duty or reduced duty on my goods. Is this likely to change on 1 January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place between the UK and the EU?’ ’ for more information on tariff arrangements with non-EU countries.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

5.05 The goods that I export to non-EU countries are not of UK origin but are products that were previously imported into the UK. What issues will I face?

If you import seafood from outside of the UK and do not carry out any processing, packing or wrapping on the goods in the UK, before you export them to a non-EU country, you may wish to check the terms of the Export Health Certificate (EHC) for the destination country.

Some of the UK’s EHCs for non-EU countries contain an attestation that the seafood being certified for export derives from an establishment approved by the UK competent authority. If no processing, packing or wrapping is carried out on the imported seafood once it has arrived in the UK, the products cannot be said to derive from a UK approved establishment. Therefore the Certifying Officer may be unable to sign the EHC.

In general, UK goods seeking to enter a non-EU country under a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) will have to prove that they are from the UK in accordance with the Rules of Origin agreed in the FTA. If the UK has negotiated a FTA with your destination country at the end of the transition period, it is recommended that you check the Rules of Origin in the FTA.

A list of Free Trade Agreements expected to take effect from 1 January 2021 can be found here.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

Section 6 - Exporting from the UK to EU countries

6.01 I export to the EU so no customs duties are paid on the goods at their destination. Will this change?

Should the UK and EU not agree a future trading relationship beyond the Withdrawal Agreement, UK-EU trade will be conducted on non-preferential WTO terms. This means that full 'Most Favoured Nation' (MFN) tariffs and non-preferential rules of origin would apply to consignments of UK seafood at the EU destination country.

The applicable tariffs are recorded in the EU’s Common Customs Tariff, where they are listed as ‘erga omnes’ (which translates as ‘towards all’). The EU may change these rates before the close of the transition period, but the current tariff rates can be used as an indication.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.02 How do I check the Commodity Code and/or tariff for my goods going to the EU?

Prior to the end of the transition period, the UK Trade Tariff Tool can help you to find the correct commodity code for your exports. The tool however should be used with caution as identifying the wrong code risks paying the wrong tariff, costly delays at the border or even goods being blocked from entering the EU. 

If you are unsure which commodity code best fits your product, HMRC are best placed to offer the necessary advice. Contact details are provided in this government guidance.

Once the correct commodity code has been identified, the UK Trade Tariff Tool lists the VAT and tariff applicable to that commodity code. During the transition period, the UK Trade Tariff Tool will show the tariffs that currently apply for imports into the EU (including the UK).

More information on how to use the UK Trade Tariff Tool can be found here.

Following the close of the transition period the UK Trade Tariff Tool will show the tariffs applicable for imports into the UK and not imports into the EU as is currently shown.

Should the UK and EU not agree a future trading relationship beyond the Withdrawal Agreement, UK-EU trade will be conducted on non-preferential WTO terms. This means that full, 'Most Favoured Nation' (MFN), tariffs and non-preferential rules of origin would apply to consignments of UK seafood at the EU destination country.

Should the UK and EU agree a future trading relationship beyond the Withdrawal Agreement; tariffs will instead be set at the preferential rates agreed.

To access commodity code and tariff information for your exports to the EU after 1 January 2021, UK businesses are advised to use the EU’s TARIC tool.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.03 Will I be able to take advantage of the EU’s existing Free Trade Agreements for my exports at the end of the transition period?

No, the UK will no longer be a party to these agreements. However the UK is seeking to reproduce the effects of existing EU agreements for when they no longer apply to the UK (from 31 December 2020). This will ensure continuity of trading arrangements for UK businesses. A list of agreements expected to take effect from 1 January 2021 can be found here. The agreements may contain minor changes to the original agreement, particularly in the area of rules of origin and may contain minor changes to duty rates.

UK businesses should refer to government guidance on ‘UK trade agreements with non-EU countries’ for the latest developments and discussion on the transition of EU trade agreements.

Some agreements however will not be in place before the end of the transition period. In this case, trade with these countries would take place on World Trade Organization (WTO) terms using ‘Most Favoured Nation’ (MFN) tariffs. This may result in changes to duty rates.

Information on preferential and MFN rates can be accessed at the European Commission’s Market Access database.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.04 What do I need to do to export my fisheries products from Great Britain to the EU and Northern Ireland if the transition period ends without a future trade agreement in place?? (excluding direct landings)

While the process of exporting fisheries and aquaculture products from Great Britain to the EU and Northern Ireland is expected to change at the end of the transition period, the details and extent of this change will be dependent on the outcome of the ongoing trade negotiations with the EU.

In the case of the UK and EU not being able to conclude a future trade agreement beyond the Withdrawal Agreement, UK exporters of fisheries products to the EU should consider the following:

  • Do you have a valid UK Economic Operator Registration and Identification (EORI) number and a valid EU EORI number where applicable?
    (see question ‘Do I need an EORI number?’)
  • All exports of fishery products will need to be dispatched from an UK approved food establishment that has been listed by the EU. Find out how to become listed. Will your consignment of fish and fishery products arrive into the EU via an EU Border Control Post (BCP) which is approved to handle your category of goods? Have you obtained a signed Export Health Certificate for every consignment to the EU? (see question ‘How do I get an Export Health Certificate for my consignment to the EU after 1 January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place beyond the Withdrawal Agreement?’)
  • Have you obtained a Catch Certificate, where applicable for your product? Have you sent it to the importer so they can give it to the receiving country’s competent authority? It is recommended that a copy of the certificate accompanies the consignment.

(see question ‘How do I get a Catch Certificate, Storage Document and/or Processing Statement for my consignment to the EU from 1 January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place beyond the Withdrawal Agreement?’)

  • If you are exporting fish sourced from another country that has been stored in the UK for more than 12 hours, have you obtained a Storage Document?
    (see question ‘How do I get a Catch Certificate, Storage Document and/or Processing Statement for my consignment to the EU from 1st January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place beyond the Withdrawal Agreement?’)
  • If you are exporting fish sourced from another country that has been processed in the UK, have you obtained a Processing Statement?
    (see question ‘How do I get a Catch Certificate, Storage Document and/or Processing Statement for my consignment to the EU from 1st January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place beyond the Withdrawal Agreement?)
  • Does your packaging display the new UK health/identification mark?
    (see question ‘What changes need to be made to EU health and identification marks after 1 January 2021?’)
  • If your consignment contains pre-packaged food, does it have an EU address on the packaging? (see question ‘What changes will be needed to the labelling of products intended for sale within the EU and Northern Ireland to reflect that the UK is no longer a member of the EU?’)

Submit an export declaration to HMRC yourself or get your customs broker to submit on your behalf. (see question ‘Should I use a Customs Broker/Agent or Freight Forwarder to help with customs procedures?’).

Government guidance ‘The transition period’ and ‘Export fish to the EU from 1 January 2021’  can also provide more information.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.05 I move live aquatic animals from Great Britain to the EU or Northern Ireland for aquaculture purposes. Will my processes change if the transition period ends without a future trade agreement with the EU? (excluding direct landings)

If the transition period ends without a future trade agreement in place, you will need an Export Animal Health Certificate (EAHCs) to move the following live aquatic animals from Great Britain into the EU or Northern Ireland:

  • aquaculture animals for farming, relaying, put and take fisheries and open ornamental facilities
  • Live bivalve molluscs for immediate processing, or purification (depuration) prior to human consumption.
  • ornamental aquatic animals intended for closed ornamental facilities

salamanders and newts

You do not need an animal health certificate for scallops; you will need an EHC for fishery products.

It is recommended that you check with the Competent Authority or Official Service for Aquatic Animal Health in the destination country or via their embassy in the UK to find out what Export Animal Health Certificate is required.

You must then contact the relevant competent authority to apply for an EAHC at least 5 working days before export:

  • Fish Health Inspectorate at Cefas if you are in England or Wales
  • Fish Health Inspectorate at Marine Scotland if you are in Scotland
  • There are different rules for Northern Ireland, please see our separate guide for more information

EAHCs must be signed by the relevant competent authority following an inspection of the consignment and must accompany the consignment.

The consignment must enter the EU via a Border Control Post (BCP) approved to handle live aquatic animals within the EU. You’ll need to consider if your current trade routes could be affected. Find an EU-approved Border Control Post here.

Make sure your importer/ EU-based import agent has notified the BCP that your consignment is arriving - check with the BCP for how much notice needs to be given.

More information on exporting live aquatic animals to the EU can be accessed here.

To apply for an EAHC click here.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.06 I move live aquatic animals from Great Britain to the EU or Northern Ireland for direct human consumption. Will my processes change if the transition period ends without a future trade agreement with the EU? (excluding direct landings)

Live aquatic animals intended for direct consumption by the final consumer – such as live oysters and mussels (if from Class A waters or depurated), crabs and lobster – are classed as animal products and not as live animals. These products will therefore be subject to controls applying to animal products rather than live animal controls and are subject to circumstantial rules.

See question ‘what do I need to do to export my fisheries products from Great Britain to the EU and Northern Ireland if the transition period ends without a future trade agreement in place?’ for more information on the controls applicable to live aquatic animals.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.07 What do I need to do to land a catch from a UK-flagged vessel directly into the EU and Northern Ireland after 1 January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place beyond the Withdrawal Agreement?

While the process of landing fishery products from UK-flagged vessels directly into the EU and Northern Ireland is expected to change after 1 January 2021, the details and extent of this change will be dependent on the outcome of the ongoing negotiations with the EU.

In the case of no future trade deal being agreed beyond the Withdrawal Agreement,  UK flagged vessels landing fisheries products directly into the EU and Northern Ireland should consider the following:

For all types of UK-flagged vessels:

  1. IMO Number

While future access to fish in EU and other coastal State waters remains a matter for negotiation, UK fishermen who want to prepare for all scenarios at the end of the transition period should apply for an International Maritime Organization (IMO) number now.

In order to grant UK vessels access to EU waters in some circumstances, UK flagged vessels will be required to register with the IMO..

IMO registration is free and all UK fishing vessels will have to submit their IMO number to the Single Issuing Authority being established by the Marine Management Organisation (MMO).

  1. You must land in a port designated by NEAFC and the EU

You must ensure your UK-flagged vessel lands or transships at a port in the EU or Northern Ireland which is designated by both the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) and the EU.

A list of NEAFC designated ports can be found here.

A list of ports at which sea fish may be landed in the EU and Northern Ireland, in accordance with EU IUU legislation can be found here.

  1. Catch Certificate

See question ‘How do I get a Catch Certificate, Storage Document and/or Processing Statement for my consignment to the EU from 1 January ?

  1. Prior notification form

You will need to land at an EU port designated by North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) and give the port prior notification of your arrival:

  • for frozen fish, at least 72 hours before landing
  • for fresh fish, at least 4 hours before landing

There are different prior notification forms for exempt e.g. some freshwater and aquaculture species (see Annex I of Commission Regulation (EU) No 202/2011 for full list) and non-exempt (or a combination of exempt and non-exempt) fisheries products.

More information on prior notification forms can be found in government guidance.

  1. Pre-landing declaration

You’ll need to fill in a pre-landing declaration and email it to your destination EU designated port 4 hours before landing. You’ll need to give details of the:

  • area fished
  • quantity of fish by species on board the vessel

More information on pre-landing declarations can be found in government guidance.

  1. North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) Port State Control form (PSC1 or PSC2)

Speak to your licensing authority who can register your fishing vessel with NEAFC.

Once your vessel is registered, you will need to create an account with NEAFC. to submit a Port State Control form (PSC1 or PSC2) before landing.

  • PSC 1 is required if the vessel is landing its own catch.
  • PSC 2 is required if the vessel has been engaged in transshipment operations.

Vessels carrying both their own catch and fish transshipped from other vessels are required to fill in both PSC 1 and PSC 2.

Check the NEAFC website to find out how much notice you need to give for your PSC1 or PSC2. This will vary depending on the country you’re exporting to and how your product is presented.

  1. You will not need to land into a Border Control Post or provide an Export Health Certificate (EHC) for fresh fishery products (processed fishery products, whether whole or prepared, including products packaged under vacuum or in a modified atmosphere, that have not undergone any treatment to ensure preservation other than chilling) landed directly from a UK-flagged fishing vessel into a port designated by NEAFC and the EU at the end of the transition period. However,

For UK-flagged factory, reefer or freezer vessels only:

Vessels approved by Local Authorities that land frozen or processed fish directly into the EU will also require:

  • A Captain’s Certificate signed by the Captain who is authorised by APHA (Animal and Plant Health Agency) or DAERA (Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs), instead of an EHC.
  • The fish to be landed into a Border Control Post (BCP) approved for the landed fishery product. Click here to see whether your EU port is also a BCIP.

‘Processing’ includes activities such as wrapping, mincing, freezing and filleting. Read about processing, presentation and marketing of fish.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.08 Can I land my catch/export my seafood products to any port in the EU after 1 January 2021 if no future trade agreement is agreed beyond the Withdrawal Agreement?

You must ensure your UK-flagged vessel lands or transships at a port in the EU or Northern Ireland which is designated by both the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) and the EU.

A list of NEAFC designated ports can be found here.

A list of ports at which sea fish may be landed in the EU and Northern Ireland, in accordance with EU IUU legislation can be found here.

Fishery enforcement officers may inspect your fish when you arrive. You’ll need to show them the UK catch certificate.

Fresh fish directly landed into the EU will not have to go through an EU Border Control Post (BCP) but fisheries products landed from factory and freezer vessels must be landed in a port designated by the EU and NEAFC that is also a Border Control Post (BCP). Click here to see whether your EU port is also a BCP.   

All other consignments of fish and fishery products must be sent through an EU BCP if the fish was both:

  • caught by a UK flagged vessel
  • landed in the UK before being transported to the EU by sea, air, road or rail

A list of EU BCPs, by country, can be found here.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.09 What is an Export Health Certificate and do I need one for my consignment to the EU and/or Northern Ireland?

An Export Health Certificate (EHC) is an official document that confirms your export meets the health requirements of the destination country.

You must include a completed EHC for all movements of seafood to the EU and Northern Ireland at the end of the transition period and you may also need an EHC for each country that the consignment transits through (as well as an EHC for your final destination country).

At the end of the transition period, non-food approved registered vessels that land fresh fish directly into the EU and/or Northern Ireland at a port designated by NEAFC and the EU, will not require an Export Health Certificate. ‘Fresh fish’ may have undergone primary production, which may include de-heading or gutting.

If you move live aquatic animals from Great Britain to the EU and/or Northern Ireland for aquaculture purposes, you will need an Export Animal Health Certificate (EAHCs) from the relevant competent authority. This is a different certificate to the EHC (for more information see question ‘I move live aquatic animals from Great Britain to the EU or Northern Ireland for aquaculture purposes. Will my processes change if the transition period ends without a future trade agreement with the EU? (excluding direct landings)’)

There are currently three different model EHCs for exports of fresh and processed fish, shellfish and farmed fish for human consumption to the EU and/or Northern Ireland.

  1. Export of fishery products intended for human consumption
  2. Export and store live aquaculture animals, fish eggs and uneviscerated fish intended for human consumption
  3. Export live bivalve molluscs, echinoderms, tunicates and marine gastropods intended for human consumption

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.10 How do I get an Export Health Certificate for my consignment bound for the EU and/or Northern Ireland after 1 January 2021?

On 21 August 2020, the UK Government launched ‘EHC Online’, a digital service which allows exporters and Certifiers to apply for and certify Export Health Certificates (EHCs) remotely.

This new service means that instead of emailing your completed PDF application to the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), exporters will be able to apply online for the most frequently used EHCs.

It is anticipated that the new service will ensure that exporters and Certifiers can easily obtain a new EHC when additional certification of exports of seafood to the European Union (EU) will be required at the end of the transition period.

To make an application via EHC Online:

  1. Exporters should follow a two-step registration process for the EHC Online service; the first requires a Government Gateway account, and the second a Defra-specific account – both of which can be set up online.
  1. Your Certifying Officer must also be registered on the EHC Online system, so check that they have also signed up. If you have not yet chosen a Certifying Officer, there are various ways you can find one:

 

You should check that your Certifying Officer is able to inspect your consignment and sign your EHC in the days before you want to export. Exporters of perishable fishery products should contact their Certifying Officer to discuss specific needs.

  1. Log into EHC Online via the UK Government’s Form Finder tool or via your Defra account.
  2. Select ‘Start a new application’ on the Exporter Dashboard or clone a previous application.
  3. Complete the required steps and submit your application.
  4. Once APHA has approved your EHC application, they will let your Certifying Officer know when your EHC is ready to download and print:
  • 7 working days before your export date
  • within one working day of receiving it, if you plan to export in the next 7 working days

You will be able to see when APHA has sent your certificate to your Certifying Officer on the system.

  1. The certifying officer will then inspect your export to check it meets the health requirements of the destination country. If your consignment is compliant, they will then complete, sign and give the EHC to you. They will also send a copy to APHA.

The EHC must travel with your animal products to the export destination.

Local Authorities may charge a fee to the exporter for the required certification.

More information on accessing EHC Online for exporters can be found here.

Further advice on getting an EHC can be found in this government guidance.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.11 Are there other ways I can obtain an Export Health Certificate?

Block Certification

For frequent and regular consignments to the same country, exporters can apply for blocks of up to 50 Export Health Certificates (EHCs) to be held by local authorities (LAs) or Official Veterinarians (OVs) ready for export. Issuing 'blocks' of serially numbered EHCs to LAs/OVs in advance, will help when certificates are required at pace.

Block certificates can be requested via the EHC Online service by indicating the number of certificates required on the relevant application (see question ‘How do I get an Export Health Certificate for my consignment bound for the EU and/or Northern Ireland after 1 January 2021?’).

Official Veterinarian

An official veterinarian may be able to sign your export health certificate, in addition to a local authority Certifying Officer. Check the list of commercial vets who can sign EHCs.

Groupage Export Facilitation Scheme

The Groupage Export Facilitation Scheme (GEFS) enables the use of time limited (30 day) Support Attestations to facilitate export health certification for groupage exports from Great Britain to, or for transit through, the EU and/or Northern Ireland.

Support Attestation provide information from supplier/manufacturing establishments, who are currently approved under EU regulations (Regulation (EU) 853/2004), to the certifying Official Veterinarian at the exporting premises.

Example: an exporter may group several supplier consignments into a single export consignment. The Official Veterinarian would use the Support Attestations provided by each of the exporter’s suppliers and their personal knowledge to check and certify the consolidated consignment.

The products for export must be fully packaged for the final consumer and produced using only animal content from a traceable network of known suppliers

Exporters must also be GEFS members to benefit and the scheme will commence at the end of the transition period: 1 January 2021. Primarily, the scheme will be for products certified by Official Vets but Defra are working to facilitate non-vet involvement.

For a definition of a groupage export and for more information on the scheme and how to apply, please see this draft advice.

‘Hub’ Approach

DFDS in conjunction with the Scottish Government have developed a ‘hub’ approach to Export Health Certification (EHC). The purpose of this approach is to allow for the consolidation of goods under one EHC. It is anticipated that it would assist seafood exporters in rural locations or areas with limited certifying officers. For more information contact DFDS Larkhall.

This approach is currently being considered for development in England.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.12 What language should my EHC be in?

Export Health Certificates (EHCs) should be presented in English, the language at the port of entry into the EU and the language of the destination. It is not necessary to include the language of any countries through which the consignment passes.

A translation of the EHC may be required upon entry at an EU Border Control Post (BCP) and at the EU Member State of destination. If you include export destination details in the application form, APHA will complete the translations for you, and send them to your Certifying Officer. If you don’t know the destination when you apply, it will be down to you or your Certifying Officer to prepare the translations.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.13 How do I get a Catch Certificate, Storage Document and/or Processing Statement for my consignment to the EU and/or Northern Ireland from 1 January 2021?

The Marine Management Organisation’s (MMO) ‘Fish Export Service’ provides an online system for creating UK catch certificates, processing statements and storage documents. Many UK fish exporters were acquainted with the ‘Fish Export Service’ at the end of 2019, but may have noticed the system has been offline since January 2020 for further development work.

The MMO plan to re-launch the ‘Fish Export Service’ in late 2020. Please monitor UK Government Guidance for more information on the launch.

There are different rules for Northern Ireland. Please see our separate guide for more information.

Catch Certificate:

Exporters from England, Scotland and Wales will be required to obtain a validated catch certificate for every export of most fish and fishery products to the EU and/or Northern Ireland.

The catch certificate shows that the fish was caught legally and it is the responsibility of the exporter to ensure that a catch certificate is completed at the point of export. The Catch Certificate is not required to physically accompany the consignment.

To create a catch certificate you need:

  • a Government Gateway user ID and password
  • the company name and address of the exporter
  • the name of the person responsible for the export
  • the species (or FAO code), its state and its presentation
  • the EU tariff commodity code for each product
  • the names or PLNs of the vessels that caught the species, and the landing dates
  • the export weights of each product
  • to say whose waters the species were caught in
  • transport details for how the export will leave the UK and where it will leave from
  • the identification numbers of the containers used to export the product

You won’t need a catch certificate to export:

  • Farmed fish and farmed shellfish
  • Freshwater fish or freshwater shellfish
  • Fish fry or larvae
  • Some molluscs including scallops, mussels and oysters, but you may still need a live shellfish registration document - contact your local council for more information.

You must send the validated catch certificate to the importer so that they can provide them to the receiving country’s competent authority. You must do this for exports by:

  • sea: 72 hours before landing
  • air and rail: 4 hours before arriving
  • road: 2 hours before arriving

See UK Government Guidance ‘Create a UK Catch Certificate’ for more information.

Storage Document:

If you are exporting to the EU and/or Northern Ireland fish sourced from another country that has been stored in the England, Scotland or Wales for more than 12 hours, but not processed in any way, you’ll need to apply for a storage document.

You must include a copy of the catch certificate from the original consignment with the storage document.

See UK Government guidance to ‘Create a UK storage document for more information.

Processing Statement:

If you’re exporting to the EU and/or Northern Ireland fish sourced from another country that has been processed in the England, Scotland and Wales, you’ll need to apply for a processing statement.

You must include a copy of the catch certificate from the original consignment with the processing statement.

See UK Government GuidanceCreate a UK processing statement for more information.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.14 When I land my catch in Great Britain it goes straight onto a lorry for export to the EU or Northern Ireland. Can I still operate this way after 1 January 2021 if no future trade agreement is in place beyond the Withdrawal Agreement?”

In the above circumstances, the EU and Northern Ireland will require that fish and fishery products exported from Great Britain to the EU and Northern Ireland are dispatched from an approved food establishment.

For businesses exporting unprocessed seafood to the EU and Northern Ireland immediately upon landing in England, Scotland or Wales, you may need to consider one of the following options:

  1. Sell your products at a fish market that is an approved food establishment, and from where the products can be issued with an oval health/identification mark and an Export Health Certificate;

OR

  1. Discuss requirements for becoming an approved food establishment with your Local Authority. This may require a change to your current processes. If you use vivier lorries, you may be able to acquire approved establishment status for the vehicle (see question ‘can my vivier lorry obtain approved establishment status?’)

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.15 Do I need to agree Incoterms with my EU trading partners?

Incoterms define the responsibility of buyers and sellers in the delivery of goods and could be vital if you experience any issues at the EU border. Incoterms seek to avoid costly misunderstandings by clarifying the tasks, costs and risks involved in the delivery of goods from sellers to buyers.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.16 I export composite products containing seafood from Great Britain to the EU and Northern Ireland. Will my export procedures change from 1 January 2021?

Composite food products contain a mix of processed products of animal origin (POAO) and plant products (used as a main ingredient - not just added for flavouring or processing). More information about what constitutes a composite food product can be found here.

First, you need to determine whether your composite product is exempt from the requirement to enter the EU and/or Northern Ireland via a Border Control Post.

If your product is not exempt, you must:

  1. Make sure your products meetEU standards.
  2. Follow the wider changes for exporting to the EU after 1 January 2021, for example, around tariffs and customs declarations.
  3. Complete the Export Health Certificate (EHC) and supporting documents for sendingcomposite products to the EU. Follow the process to get your EHC signed by a vet.
  4. Plan your route to get an inspection at anEU BCP that can accept your type of goods.

If your product is exempt, you should:

  • Obtain a commercial document instead of an Export Health Certificate.
  • Send your products through any EU point of entry (you do not need to go through an EU BCP for inspections)
  • Follow thewider changes for exporting to the EU, for example, tariffs and customs declarations
  • Label your goods in an official EU language, with the:
  • nature, quantity and number of packages in the composite products
  • country of origin
  • manufacturer
  • ingredients

Composite products containing more than 20% fishery products or using tariff codes 1604 and 1605 may need a catch certificate.

Exempt species include some freshwater fish and aquaculture - check the list of exempt species.

If the fish is imported from a third country and then stored or processed in the UK before it’s exported to the EU, you’ll need to show storage documents or processing statements as well as the original catch certificate used to import the fish into the UK.

For more information see question ‘How do I get a Catch Certificate, Storage Document and/or Processing Statement for my consignment to the EU and/or Northern Ireland from 1st January 2021?

For further advice on exporting composite products see UK Government Guidance: ‘Export composite food products to the EU from 1 January 2021’ and ‘Export fish to the EU from 1 January 2021

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

6.17 Can my vivier lorry obtain approved establishment status?

Generally speaking, transport operations are considered exempt from approval requirements in food law.  However a transport vehicle may be approved, providing the vehicle in question falls within the scope of approval and meets the relevant requirements of Regulation (EC) No. 852/2004 and Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004.

You should discuss your approval needs with your local authority.

Last Updated: 7 September 2020

Further guides