RASS Records

Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in Canadian waters, Shrimp Fishing Area (SFA) 2, Demersal otter trawl



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Content Last Updated
30 October 2015
Stock
Management


Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is found in the Northwest Atlantic from Baffin Bay to the Gulf of Maine, with the highest population abundances occurring in water temperatures of 0-4?C and most frequently at depths of 150-600 m over soft muddy substrates. This species can reach a maximum total length of 120 mm for males and 165 mm for females; and is a protandric hermaphrodite, maturing first as a male but changing sex at an age of around 3 to 7 years old and completing the remainder of their live cycle as a female. Shrimp spawn from late summer to autumn, and females carry their eggs until spring when the larvae hatch. Some females may survive to repeat the spawning process in succeeding years. Natural mortality seems to be most pronounced immediately following hatching, and most shrimp do not live past age 5. Newly hatched shrimp spend three to four months as pelagic larvae, and at the end of this period they move to deeper waters and take up the life cycle of adults (Skúladóttir, 1998; Idoine, 2006; Aschan et al., 2011; DFO, 2013).

 

The offshore fleet fishing in shrimp fishing area (SFA) 2 is comprised of 13 large factory freezer trawlers operating from ports in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, Canada. Vessels in the present fleet are 49 to 75 m in length, purpose built for shrimp trawling and processing, but able to fish and process groundfish if required. The fishing season in all shrimp fishing areas (SFAs 2 to 6) runs from April 1st to March 31st of each year. The offshore fleet tend to fish all year round, starting in SFAs 5 and 6, then moving north up to SFA 2 when ice conditions and quotas allow (Aschan et al., 2011).

 

Since 1994, the majority of catches of northern shrimp in SFA 2 have originated from southeast of Resolution Island and east of the Nunavut and Nunavik land claim borders (SFA 2CM). Total catches from the directed and bycatch fisheries varied without trend at around 6 000 tonnes between 1997/98 and 2009/10. Followed by an increase in catches between 2010/11 and 2013/14 (6 000-8 000 tonnes) mainly due to increased fishing effort in SFA 2EX (east of 63?W). The status of the stock is considered healthy by the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans with female spawning stock biomass remaining well within the healthy zone of the integrated fisheries management plan precautionary framework. Management of this stock is by a total allowable catch (TAC) for northern shrimp in SFA 2.

The TAC for 2013/14 was 9 767 tonnes, but the demersal otter trawl fleet have not fully taken the TAC since 1998 (DFO 2013, 2014).





Figure 1. Location of the SFA 2 (SFA 2CM + SFA 2EX) and adjacent SFAs in respect to stock assessment zones off east Canada (Western - WZA and Eastern - EZA) and Resolution Island Survey Area (RISA). Borders between SFAs are shown in grey (right picture). Boundaries of the Nunavut, Nunavik and Nunatsiavut land claims are shown in red (DFO, 2013).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References



Aschan, M., Powles, H. and Angel, J. 2011. MSC Assessment Report for The Canadian Offshore Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Trawl Fishery - Shrimp Fishing Areas 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Client: Canadian Association of Prawn Producers and the Northern Coalition Version: Stakeholder Comment Draft. 153 pp.

DFO. 2013. Assessment of Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and Striped Shrimp (Pandalus

montagui) in the eastern and western assessment zones (Shrimp Fishing Areas 2 and 3). DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Advis. Rep. 2013/031.

DFO. 2014. Update of stock status indicators for Northern Shrimp, Pandalus borealis, and

Striped Shrimp, Pandalus montagui, in the western and eastern assessment zones. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Sci. Resp. 2014/003.

Idoine, J. 2006. Northern shrimp. Status of Fishery Resources off the Northeastern US NEFSC - Resource Evaluation and Assessment Division. 13 pp. Available at: http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/sos/spsyn/iv/shrimp/

Skúladóttir, U. 1998. Size at sexual maturity of female Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis Krøyer) in the Denmark Strait 1985–93 and a comparison with the nearest Icelandic shrimp populations. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., 24: 27–37

 

The status of Northern shrimp in Canadian waters, Shrimp Fishing Area (SFA) 3 has been scored a moderate risk. This is because the species has a relatively low maximum vulnerability score of 34/100 (Townsend, 2014). The most recent assessment indicates that fishable biomass and female spawning stock biomass decreased below the long term mean during 2013 and 2014. The low vulnerability score epitomises the robust life history characteristics of this species which makes it resilient to fishing activities (e.g. early maturation (<5 years), short life cycle (< 10 years), small maximum size and low on the food chain), and corresponds to the FishBase / SeaLifeBase vulnerability score that ranges between 0 and 35 (Townsend, 2014). A risk score was derived for this stock by assuming a worst case scenario and selecting a maximum vulnerability score of 34/100 weighted by the stable population trend.



The management of northern shrimp in Canadian waters, SFA 2 has been scored a very low risk.. This is because management decisions are informed by an annual stock assessment, catches of northern shrimp have been below the advised catch since 1998, and there is a comprehensive regulatory framework in place. The management measures in place adequately protect the stock from overexploitation, and regulations are enforced and independently verified.



The bycatch impact of the demersal otter trawl fishery for northern shrimp in SFA 2 has been scored a low risk. This is because bycatch in the demersal otter trawl fleet is negligible (<5% of total catch weight for northern and stripped shrimp combined) and all vessels in the fishery have taken steps to reduce the absolute quantity of bycatch using a Nordmore separator grate and to minimise the bycatch of threatened species through best practice.



The habitat impact of the demersal otter trawl fishery for northern shrimp in SFA 2 has been scored a moderate risk. Although demersal otter trawls interact with seabed habitat, all vessels in the fishery have taken steps to reduce their habitat impact by using appropriate gear technology and several closed areas have been established to protect sensitive seabed habitats.



TypeCurrent Risk StatusOutlookReason
StockModerate Stable The status of the stock is likely to remain stable in the future given that this species has a low maximum vulnerability score and female spawning stock biomass has remained stable in recent years without significant trend.
ManagementVery low Stable The management of this stock is likely to remain stable in the future given that the stock assessment is updated annually and control measures are in place to adequately protect the stock from overexploitation. Regulations are enforced and independently verified using several surveillance measures. Catches have been below the recommended TAC since 1998.
BycatchLow Stable Bycatch levels in this fishery are negligible (<5% of catch weight) and all vessels have taken steps to minimise the capture of non-target species.
HabitatModerate Improving All vessels in the fishery have taken steps to reduce the footprint of the gear on the seabed by using appropriate gear technology and several closed areas have been established to protect sensitive seabed habitats.

Nutrition information from 100g raw product

Rich in:
Omega-3
Protein
Vitamin B12
Vitamin E
Selenium
Good Source Of:
Phosphorus
Copper
low
Energy
70 (kcal)
4%
na
Fat
0.9 (g)
1%
low
Saturates
0.2 (g)
1%
low
Sugar
0 (g)
0%
na
Salt
1.5 (g)
25%