Loligo squids in the Indo-Pacific, Jigs
- Content last updated
- 24 October 2014
- Loligo squids in the Indo-Pacific
- Not managed
- Stock Status
Very high risk
Very low risk
Indo-Pacific Loligo squids have been scored a moderate risk. This is because the stock has a relatively low vulnerability score of 20/100 for Uroteuthis chinensis, 14/100 for Uroteuthis duvauceli, and 30/100 for Uroteuthis edulis (SeaLifeBase, 2014), and the population trend is unknown. With a vulnerability score below 31 and either an unknown or declining stock status they should be considered as at moderate risk. From a biological point of view the moderate risk status is supported by all-year-round spawning and recruitment in both species (so absence of a season when the species is particularly vulnerable to fishing), presence of paralarval stage allowing exchange of recruitment between spawning grounds, very high growth rates, short life span of 6-12 months, and broad feeding spectra allowing squids to prey on anything of convenient size (Jereb, Roper, 2010; Dutton, 2013).
The management of Indo-Pacific Loligo squids has been scored a very high risk. This is because monitoring is ineffective and there is no reliable data on landings throughout the species’ range. There is no international or regional fishery management for squid; management and any enforcement measures are up to the discretion of individual countries within their exclusive economic zones. Excess capacity, excess fishing effort, and poor enforcement all contribute to the difficulties in effectively managing these squid fisheries. In India and Thailand, open access fisheries also exacerbate the issues (Dutton, 2013).
The bycatch in the Indo-Pacific Loligo squid fishery has been scored a low risk. This is because bycatch of other species by specialised squid jigs is considered to be negligible. In this area, it might include some other cephalopods such as cuttlefish (5% in Sundaram; Savant, 2013) but no fish or marine animals.
The habitat impact of the jig fishery for Indo-Pacific Loligo squids has been scored a very low risk. This is because jigs have no contact with sea floor and cephalopods are mostly targeted at night when they are collected by fishers attracting squids by a light field at the surface (Sundaram and Sawant, 2013). The only impact on the seabed might be caused by the boat anchor, but Loligo squids aggregate above sandy and muddy bottoms so outside vulnerable coral reef areas. Moreover, boats often use a parachute anchor (Dunning et al., 2000).