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Squid, North Sea, demersal trawl

fish

Loligo vulgarus, Loligo forbesi

Content last updated
22nd Feb 2017

Stock:
Stock in Subarea IV (North Sea)

Management:
None

Overview

Squids taken commercially by demersal otter trawl in the ICES Subarea IV represent a mixture of species belonging to families: Loliginidae (‘long finned squid’) which includes species such as Loligo forbesii, Alloteuthis subulata, and A. media, and Ommastrephidae (‘short finned squid’) which includes Todarodes sagittatus, Illex coindetii and Todaropsis eblanae (ICES, 2016, Oesterwind et al, 2010). Long finned squids occur in relatively shallow water and are mostly caught by demersal gear. They are amongst the most valued squid species.  Short-finned squids are occasionally very abundant and important in catches and are more prone to extreme variations in abundance than long-finned squids. They are mostly pelagic and are mainly taken by trawling and by using gill and trammel nets (Pierce et al, 2010).  The most abundant species in the North Sea are Alloteuthis subulata and Loligo forbesii, which have seasonal migration patterns throughout the North Sea (Oesterwind et al. 2010). All these species have short and flexible life cycles (averaging one year, but up to 2 years in T.sagittatus), very fast growth rates, non-specialised predatory behaviour (preying on any food within their prey size range) and round the year spawning.  However there are species-specific seasonal spawning peaks. Long finned squids lay eggs on the bottom in inshore waters, whereas short finned squid produce pelagic egg masses of neutral buoyancy. Because of the short annual life cycle the squid stocks depend heavily on recruitment success and fluctuate significantly between years. Squids are taken predominantly as a bycatch species by demersal trawling (Arkhipkin et al., 2015). Official fishery landings data do not normally identify squid to the species level (ICES, 2014).

References

Arkhipkin , A., Rodhouse, P., Pierce, G., et al. (2015) World Squid Fisheries, Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 23:2, 92-252

ICES. 2014. Report of the Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History (WGCEPH), 16-19 June 2014, Lisbon, Portugal. ICES CM 2014/SSGEF:02. 355 pp.

ICES. 2016. Interim Report of the Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History (WGCEPH), 8–11 June 2015, Tenerife, Spain. ICES CM 2015/SSGEPD:02. 127 pp.

Oesterwind, D., ter Hofstede, M., Harley, B., Brendelberger, H. and Piatkowski, U. 2010. Biology and meso-scale distribution patterns of North Sea cephalopods. Fisheries Research 106: 141-150.

Pierce, G. J., Allcock, L., Bruno, I., Bustamante, P., González, Á., Guerra, Á., Jereb, P., et al. 2010. Cephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe. ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 303. 175 pp.

Stock Status

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more risk

The status of squid in Subarea IV (North Sea) has been scored as high risk. This is because vulnerability of these squids as assessed by SealifeBase can be high in some species and because mixed abundance trends are reported for different squid species.

The status of squid in Subarea IV (North Sea) has been scored as high risk. This is because vulnerability of these squids as assessed by SealifeBase can be high in some species and because mixed abundance trends are reported for different squid species.

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Management

less risk

more risk

The management of squid in Subarea IV (North Sea) has been scored as high risk. This is because data from active fisheries and research surveys are collected regularly, but are not adequate for the stock assessment that would be required to inform management of these populations. There are no management measures in place to restrict catch of any particular species involved into the multi-species fishery because there is no species-specific reporting, though surveillance of boats (and landing)s in the fisheries is at the highest level.

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Bycatch

less risk

more risk

The bycatch risk of this fishery has been scored high risk. This is because squids represent a major bycatch in larger demersal otter trawl fisheries targeting finfish. Discards of undesirable species, including squid, can represent between 10 and 40% of the catch in weight.

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Habitat

less risk

more risk

The habitat risk of the squid fishery in Subarea IV (North Sea) has been scored as high-moderate risk. Although demersal trawls are considered to have potential to cause significant habitat damage, damage to vulnerable and sensitive marine habitats is likely to be minimised given that the footprint of the fishery is within core areas of historically fished ground. In addition future MPA networks will provide further protection to squid habitat.

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Outlook

Type Current Risk Status Outlook Reason

Stock

High Stable

Reporting at a family level is likely to continue which will preclude proper evaluation of stock status.

Management

High Stable

There are no management measures in place to monitor or restrict catch of any particular species involved into this multi-species fishery because there is no species-specific reporting.

Bycatch

High Improving

Bycatch in this fishery is relatively high, but it is envisioned that with the landings obligation squid might benefit indirectly from improved gear selectivity.

Habitat

High Stable / Improving

As planned networks of Marine Protected Areas become established, larger areas of sensitive habitat will become protected from trawling.

Nutritional Information

 
Energy
81 (kcal)
4%*
LOW
Fat
1.7 (g)
3%*
LOW
Saturates
0.4 (g)
2%*
LOW
Sugar
Tr
Tr%*
LOW
Salt
0.28 (g)
5%*

*per 100 g

Nutrition information per 100g raw product

Rich in Omega-3 | Protein | Vitamin B6 | Vitamin B12 | Copper | Selenium

Good Source Of Niacin | Phosphorus

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