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Pollack in the Celtic Sea and West of Scotland (ICES subareas VI and VII), Gillnet

fish

Pollachius pollachius

Content last updated
31st May 2018

Stock:
Pollack in ICES subarea VI and VII, Celtic Sea and West of Scotland

Management:
EU

Overview

Pollack (Pollachius pollachius) is a semi-pelagic member of the cod family that is widely distributed across the Northeast Atlantic from Iceland, the Faeroes and Norway to the Bay of Biscay and the southern Baltic Sea usually at depths between 40 m and 100 m. Juveniles in the first two to three years of life inhabit nursery grounds in shallow estuarine and coastal waters which provide protection from predators, before adults migrate to deeper, offshore waters that have rocky habitats. Females mature at about 3 years of age and form large spawning aggregations in deep waters at about 100 m depth most frequently between January and March. Adult pollack reach a maximum age of 15 years old, seldom exceed 130 cm in length and exhibit rapid growth at around 10 cm a year. They mainly feed on small bottom-living organisms including small crustaceans, worms and fishes; and they are preyed on by other fish, marine mammals and sea birds.

 

Pollack are caught in demersal otter trawl, set gillnet and trolling line fisheries targeting mixed finfish species. Most landings of pollack originated from the Celtic Sea (Sub-area VII) over the last decade, and high proportion of the landings were taken from the Western English Channel (Division VIIe). This is an important species for recreational anglers fishing in shallow, coastal and deeper, offshore waters. Available information on the biology of the stock and the characteristics of both the commercial and recreational fisheries is limited (ICES, 2015).

 

References

ICES. 2015. Pollack (Pollachius pollachius) in Subareas VI-VII (Celtic Seas and the English Channel).

ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort. Celtic Seas Ecoregion. ICES Advice 2015, Book 5, Section 5.3.40.

Stock Status

less risk

more risk

The status of the pollack stock in the Celtic Sea and West of Scotland (Sub-areas Vl and Vll) has been scored a high risk. This is because the species has moderate resilience to fishing exploitation (FishBase, 2015), but the population trend is unknown due to the limited information available for this data-limited stock. Available data are limited and additional information is required to evaluate the status of the stock with a high degree of confidence.

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Management

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more risk

The management of pollack in the Celtic Sea and West of Scotland (Sub-areas Vl and Vll) has been scored a low risk. This is because management decisions are informed by an annual stock assessment, catches of pollack have been below the available TAC over the last decade, and a comprehensive regulatory framework has been put in place. Data-limited approaches are used for setting management controls, which are based on knowledge of the fisheries and the biology of the stock. However, the agreed TAC is substantially higher than the recommended catches and does not limit fishing opportunities.

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Bycatch

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more risk

The bycatch risk of this fishery has been scored a moderate risk. Although discarding of pollack was negligible at 0.5% of total international catch weight in 2014 (ICES, 2015), bycatches of non-target species in the set gillnet fishery can make up a moderate proportion of catch weight. Set gillnets can take bycatches of protected, endangered and threatened (PET) species (e.g. sharks, rays and sea turtles) in certain circumstances. Some mitigation measures have been established to reduce bycatch impacts on PET species.

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Habitat

less risk

more risk

The habitat risk of this fishery has been scored a low risk.  This is because set gillnets have relatively little impact on the seabed compared to other fishing activities.  Lost or abandoned gillnets can get entangled on habitat features and weights can cause surface penetration of the seabed.  Gillnets interact with the seabed, but significant interaction with vulnerable marine habitats is unlikely.  Some spatial management is in place to protect vulnerable marine habitats.

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Outlook

Current risk status Outlook Reason
Stock High Stable The status of the stock is likely to remain stable in the future given that landings have stabilised near the value giving maximum sustainable yield. Additional information on spawning stock biomass and fishing mortality is required to evaluate stock status with a high degree of confidence.
Management Low Stable The management of the stock is likely to remain stable in the future. The CFP is going through reform and there is some uncertainty on how this will impact fisheries management. The agreed TAC’s are substantially higher than the recommended catches.
Bycatch Moderate   Improving     The bycatch impacts of the fishery are likely to improve in the future. Technical and spatial management measures are continuously under development and will potentially reduce the risk further.   The habitat impacts of the fishery are likely to improve in the future. Technical and spatial management measures are continuously under development and will potentially reduce the risk further.
    Habitat     Low     Improving

Type Current Risk Status Outlook Reason

Stock

High Stable

The status of the stock is likely to remain stable in the future given that landings have stabilised near the value giving maximum sustainable yield. Additional information on spawning stock biomass and fishing mortality is required to evaluate stock status with a high degree of confidence.

Management

Low Stable

The management of the stock is likely to remain stable in the future. The CFP is going through reform and there is some uncertainty on how this will impact fisheries management. The agreed TAC’s are substantially higher than the recommended catches.

Bycatch

Moderate Improving

The bycatch impacts of the fishery are likely to improve in the future. Technical and spatial management measures are continuously under development and will potentially reduce the risk further.

Habitat

Low Improving

The habitat impacts of the fishery are likely to improve in the future. Technical and spatial management measures are continuously under development and will potentially reduce the risk further.

Nutritional Information

 
Energy
92 (kcal)
5%*
LOW
Fat
1 (g)
1%*
LOW
Saturates
0.1 (g)
1%*
LOW
Sugar
0 (g)
0%*
LOW
Salt
0.22 (g)
4%*

*per 100g

Nutrition information from 100g raw product

Rich in Omega-3 | Protein | Vitamin B12 | Phosphorus | Selenium

Good Source Of Niacin | Vitamin B6 | Vitamin D | Potassium | Magnesium

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