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John dory in the Northeast Atlantic, Demersal otter trawl

fish

Zeus faber

Content last updated
27th Jan 2016

Stock:
John dory in ICES Sub-area VII and Divisions VIIIa,b and d (Northeast Atlantic)

Management:
EU

Overview

John dory (Zeus faber) is a widely distributed finfish found throughout the east Atlantic from Norway to the south of Africa as well as the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the western Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. This demersal species is generally solitary and inhabits areas over soft muddy substrates close to rocks in depths ranging from 20 m to more than 400 m at low population densities. Individuals of less than 8 cm in length feed on zooplankton (mainly mysid shrimp), and as the fish grow larger, they progressively feed on small benthic fish until their diet consists exclusively of benthic and demersal fish once they reach a length of 14 cm. Reproduction takes place at the end of winter and at the start of spring in the Northeast Atlantic and earlier in the more southerly climates of the Mediterranean. Sexual maturity varies from 23 to 29 cm in length for males and 29 to 37 cm in length for females depending on the location. Males rarely grow larger than 50 cm while females can reach 60 cm or more (Froese and Pauly, 2015).

No targeted fishery for John dory exists in ICES Sub-area VII and Divisions VIIIa,b and d (Northeast Atlantic). Instead, John dory is taken as bycatch in mixed demersal fisheries targeting hake (Merluccius merluccius), anglerfish (Lophius piscatorius) and megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis). Insufficient information is available to present temporal trends in landings for this data-limited stock and discarding of John dory has not been quantified. More information on catches should be collected to allow the calculation of total mortality to aid population monitoring activities. In addition, the stock structure for John dory is not fully understood and the status of stock in the Northeast Atlantic remains uncertain. The catch rates of John dory in scientific trawl surveys undertaken until 2008 imply an improvement in stock status with an increase in biomass and abundance (ICES, 2010).

References

Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2015. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (08/2015).

ICES. 2010. Report of the Working Group on Assessment of New MoU Species (WGNEW), 11-15 October 2010, ICES HQ, Denmark. ICES CM 2010/ACOM: 21. 185 pp.

 

 

Stock Status

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The status of the John dory stock in ICES Sub-area VII and Divisions VIIIa, b and d has been scored a very high risk. This is because the species has low resilience to fishing activities (FishBase, 2015) and the population trend is unknown in the most recent years due to the limited information available for this data-limited stock.

 

References

Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2015. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (08/2015).

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Management

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The management of John dory in ICES Sub-area VII and Divisions VIIIa, b and d has been scored a high risk. This is because no formal stock assessment has been conducted to inform management decisions, limited biological information is available and no specific management measures have been established to restrict harvesting. Available data are too limited to develop any form of management controls to adjust fishing opportunities on the stock, but there are management measures put in place to control effort in the fisheries.

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Bycatch

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The bycatch risk of this fishery is scored as high risk. This is because otter trawls have the potential to take relatively high quantities of bycatch of non-target and vulnerable species (> 30% of catch weight), including demersal elasmobranchs and protected, endangered and threatened (e.g. sharks and rays) species in certain circumstances. However, the incoming EU landings obligation is intended to reduce discarding.

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Habitat

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The habitat risk of this fishery is scored as a moderate risk. This is because, although otter trawls are considered to have a potential to cause significant habitat damage, damage to vulnerable and sensitive marine habitats is likely to be minimised given that the footprint of the fishery is within core areas, typically historically fished ground.

 

Spatial management to reduce potential interactions with vulnerable habitats are being developed, but there remains uncertainties about the location of some sensitive seabed habitats and therefore some risk of further impact.

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Outlook

Current risk status Outlook Reason
Stock Very high Unknown The status of the stock in the future remains unclear. The species has low resilience to fishing activities, the population trend is unknown and therefore no definitive conclusions can be drawn. Harvesting of the stock is reliant on the measures in place for the mixed-species fishery.
Management High Stable The management of the stock is likely to remain stable in the future. The EU Common Fisheries Policy is going through reform and there is some uncertainty on how this will impact fisheries management in the Northeast Atlantic.
Bycatch High Improving Bycatch of non-target species in this fishery is relatively high with poor selectivity. However, with technical and spatial management measures continuously under development and the incoming EU landings obligation intended to reduce discarding of target species, the bycatch risk is likely to reduce in the future.
Habitat High Improving Otter trawls disturb seabed habitats, but a range of Marine Protected Areas have been established and are under development to help minimise damage to vulnerable marine habitats.

Type Current Risk Status Outlook Reason

Stock

Management

Bycatch

Habitat

Nutritional Information

 
Energy
89 (kcal)
4%*
LOW
Fat
1.4 (g)
2%*
LOW
Saturates
0.3 (g)
2%*
LOW
Sugar
0 (g)
0%*
LOW
Salt
0 (g)
0%*

*per 100 g raw

Nutrition information per 100g (raw)

Rich in Protein | Vitamin B6

Good Source Of Phosphorus

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